Description of monuments
The short characteristic of burial places and monuments of period I-й of world war 1914-1918 in territory of the Kaliningrad region.
The history has disposed so that events I-й of world war in many respects remained 1914-1918 «a white stain» in the history of Russia during the long period. Revolution of 1917, civil, then the Great Patriotic War have as though covered about older event, and ideological installations did not allow to estimate objectively properly the precondition, plans, consequences of that war, in a shade there were feats of its heroes. The similar fate waited also monuments of that "unknown" war.
After the termination of military events in 1918 in territory of East Prussia there was a set of brotherly and individual burial places. In total by data for 1939 here was almost 2200 military cemeteries and individual burial places (without monuments) where remains nearby 61 200 persons were based. In territory of northern part of East Prussia (the present Kaliningrad region) them was nearby 800 (754), from them 537 – single (71 %), 176 – to hundred persons (24 %), 32 – from 100 to 500 persons (4 %) and nine – from above 500 persons (1 %).
Also there were two large cemeteries at camps for prisoners of war. Burial places where is based from 1000 persons was, at least, five in all territory of East Prussia. The so-called New Military cemetery (Neuer Militarfriedhof) where remains of 2870 Russian and German soldiers were based was considered as the largest a cemetery in Konigsberg. Into the five of the largest have entered a military burial place in Mattischkehmen (settlement State-farm) (1084 soldiers), the Wood cemetery (Waldfriedhof) in Tilsit where remains of 1000 Russian and German soldiers and Goritten - 797 persons are based.
Russian soldiers and the officers who lost during operations and have died in camps for prisoners of war, fell under action of the International conventions according to which them buried according to requirements of Christian morals, is frequent on one cemetery with German soldiers, as a rule, nearby to civil cemeteries.
Thus, the first category of monuments is made by the military burial places formed directly during operations. The first cemeteries have been equipped even during war, and then, during the post-war period, monuments and memorials are opened.
«They were lost for Fatherland» - such inscriptions, as a rule, tore off «Cemeteries of heroes» (Heldenfriedhof). Except military burial places, almost in each settlement monuments and memorable signs in honour of victims on different fronts of war of soldiers-inhabitants of the given settlement or church arrival have been established.
Other category of monuments represents the memorable signs established in honour of lost civilians in settlement Abschwangen (settlement Tishino), Almenhausen (settlement Kashtanovo).
All burial places and monuments were supported as it should be up to 1945 by efforts of the religious organisations of Germany.Loss of historical continuity in connection with the occurred change of the population of the former East Prussia, in 1945, 1/3 which part which just was in a zone of actions of 1st Russian army of general P.K.Rennenkampfa in 1914, under the decision conference Sweat-Sdamsky has departed the USSR, has affected and monuments of period I-й of world war. Many 1944-1945 which have remained after operations monuments and cemeteries were or are forgotten, or destroyed. Only the few are taken under state protection.
Result of all was that by the end of 80th years of the XX-th century was known about seven burial places of Russian soldiers of times I-й of world war which were in a deplorable state.
About 15 years ago position began to vary. In the beginning of 90th some burial places under Gusevom, Nesterovom, Krasnoznamensky have been equipped. Groups of enthusiasts, local authorities with the assistance of the National Union of Germany on care of military burial places helped to find and restore military burial places.
However till now the small part of cemeteries of heroes is restored only. Many cemeteries are destroyed completely or strongly damaged, there are also the cemeteries which places demand specification.